If a payment fails, a member's account is in 'overdue' status for approximately a week, during which time they can still access content. After the week, if they haven't updated billing information or restarted their account, it will be canceled and they will not have access to protected content. Once that member updates their card information or signs back up on the same account, their account is reactivated and they will "speed up and unlock access" even though they have not been able to log in. The clock keeps ticking during the time they've been canceled. For example, if the account was canceled at Week 1 and reactivated at Week 3, the member will have access to content from Week 1, 2 and 3.
You do have the option of changing a member's place in the drip content schedule. For more specifics about how to do that, you can review the article Change the Member's Place in a Drip Content Schedule. If you need to change the member's place in a drip content schedule once a member reactivates their membership, you can set up a push notification to alert you by changing the following headings: event, membership status changed and active.